Hydraulics, Hydraulic Structures and Scour

Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures: Experience, Selection, and Design Guidance-Third Edition, Volume 1

FHWA-NHI-09-111
September 2009

The purpose of this document is to identify and provide design guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures that have been implemented by various State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Countermeasure experience, selection, and design guidance are consolidated from other FHWA publications in this document to support a comprehensive analysis of scour and stream instability problems and provide a range of solutions to those problems. The results of recently completed National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) projects are incorporated in the design guidance, including: countermeasures to protect bridge piers and abutments from scour; riprap design criteria, specifications, and quality control, and environmentally sensitive channel and bank protection measures. Selected innovative countermeasure concepts and guidance derived from practice outside the United States are introduced. In addition, guidance for the preparation of Plans of Action (POA) for scour critical bridges has been expanded to include a standard template for POA and instructions for its use.

Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures: Experience, Selection, and Design Guidance-Third Edition, Volume 2

FHWA-NHI-09-112
September 2009

This document identifies and provides design guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures that have been implemented by various State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Countermeasure experience, selection, and design guidance are consolidated from other FHWA publications in this document to support a comprehensive analysis of scour and stream instability problems and provide a range of solutions to those problems. Selected innovative countermeasure concepts and guidance derived from practice outside the United States are introduced. Management strategies and guidance for developing a Plan of Action for scour critical bridges are outlined, and guidance is provided for scour monitoring using portable and fixed instrumentation.

The results of recently completed National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) projects are incorporated in the design guidance, including: countermeasures to protect bridge piers and abutments from scour; riprap design criteria, specifications, and quality control; and environmentally sensitive channel and bank protection measures. This additional material required expanding HEC-23 to two volumes. Volume 1 now contains a complete chapter on riprap design, specifications, and quality control as well as an expanded chapter on biotechnical countermeasures. The guidance on scour monitoring instrumentation has been updated and now includes additional installation case studies. Volume 2 contains 19 detailed design guidelines grouped into six categories, including countermeasures for: (1) stream instability (2) streambank and roadway embankment protection, (3) bridge pier protection, (4) abutment protection, (5) filter design, and (6) special applications.

Design of Hydraulic Steel Structures

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
ETL 1110-2-584
30 June 2014

We also have the older document, Design of Hydraulic Steel Structures (EM 1110-2-2105, 31 March 1993) available for download.

This manual prescribes guidance for (a) designing hydraulic steel structures (HSS) by load and resistance factor design (LRFD) and (b) fracture control. Allowable stress
design (ASD) guidance is provided as an alternative design procedure or for those structure types where LRFD criteria have yet to be developed.

Earthquake Design and Evaluation of Concrete Hydraulic Structures

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EM 1110-2-6053
1 May 2007

This manual provides guidance for performance-based design and evaluation of concrete hydraulic structures (CHS). It introduces procedures that show how to design or evaluate a hydraulic structure to have a predictable performance for specified levels of seismic hazard. Traditional design and evaluation procedures may still be used for feasibility and screening purposes. However, for critical facilities, they should be followed by the procedures of this manual to prevent sudden collapse even though the structure may suffer severe damage, to limit damage to a repairable level, or to maintain functionality immediately after the earthquake.

Evaluating Scour at Bridges

L.A. Arneson, L.W. Zevenbergen, P.F. Lagasse, P.E. Clopper
FHWA-HIF-12-003
HEC-18
April 2012

This document is the fifth edition of HEC-18. It presents the state of knowledge and practice for the design, evaluation and inspection of bridges for scour. There are two companion documents, HEC-20 entitled “Stream Stability at Highway Structures,” and HEC-23 entitled “Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures.” These three documents contain updated material from previous editions and continued research by NCHRP, FHWA, State DOTs, and universities. This fifth edition of HEC-18 also contains revisions obtained from further scour-related developments and the use of the 2001 edition by the highway community.

The major changes in the fifth edition of HEC-18 are: expanded discussion on the policy and regulatory basis for the FHWA Scour Program, including risk-based approaches for evaluations, developing Plans of Action (POAs) for scour critical bridges, and expanded discussion on countermeasure design philosophy (new vs. existing bridges). This fifth edition includes: a new section on contraction scour in cohesive materials, an updated abutment scour section, alternative abutment design approaches, alternative procedures for estimating pier scour, and new guidance on pier scour with debris loading. There is a new chapter on soils, rock and geotechnical considerations related to scour. Additional changes include: a new approach for pier scour in coarse material, new sections on pier scour in cohesive materials and pier scour in erodible rock, revised guidance for vertical contraction scour (pressure flow) conditions, guidance for predicting scour at bottomless culverts, deletion of the “General Scour” term, and revised discussion on scour at tidal bridges to reflect material now covered in HEC-25 (2nd Edition).

Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EM 1110-2-1601
1 July 1991/30 June 1994

This manual presents procedures for the design analysis and criteria of design for improved channels that carry rapid and/or tranquil flows.

Procedures are presented without details of the theory of the hydraulics involved since these details can be found in any of various hydraulic textbooks and publications available to the design engineer. Theories and procedures in design, such as flow in curved channels, flow at bridge piers, flow at confluences, and side drainage inlet structures, that are not covered fully in textbooks are discussed in detail with the aid of Hydraulic Design Criteria (HDC) charts published by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (USAEWES). The charts and other illustrations are included in Appendix B to aid the designer. References to HDC are by HDC chart number. The use of models to develop and verify design details is discussed briefly. Typical calculations are presented to illustrate the principles of design for channels under various conditions of flow. Electronic computer programming techniques are not treated in this manual. However, most of the basic hydraulics presented herein can be adapted for computer use as illustrated in Appendix D.

Hydraulic Design of Navigation Dams

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EM 1110-2-1605
12 May 1987

This manual provides guidance in designing, constructing, and operating navigation dams. Some of the factors affecting the safety and efficiency of waterways that are discussed include: types of dams; environmental considerations; equipment in general use on navigation dams; options of design to accommodate ice/debris passage, emergency operation; normal operation to pass flood flows, removal of sediment, or assistance in hydropower development. Some information is also provided on the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures.

Hydraulic Design of Spillways

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EM 1110-2-1603
16 January 1990 (original)/31 August 1992 (errata #1)

This manual presents guidance for the hydraulic design of spillways for flood control or multipurpose dams. Procedures recommended are considered appropriate for structures suitable to most of the field conditions encountered in Corps of Engineer projects. Basic theory is presented as required to clarify presentation and where the state of the art is limited in textbooks. Both laboratory and prototype experimental test results have been correlated with current theory in the design guidance where possible.

Introduction to Highway Hydraulics

James D. Schall, Everett V. Richardson, and Johnny L. Morris
FHWA-NHI-08-090
June 2008

This document provides an introduction to highway hydraulics. Hydrologic techniques presented concentrate on methods suitable to small areas, since many components of highway drainage (culverts, storm drains, ditches, etc.) service primarily small areas. A brief review of fundamental hydraulic concepts is provided, including continuity, energy, momentum, hydrostatics, weir flow and orifice flow. The document then presents open channel flow principles and design applications, followed
by a parallel discussion of closed conduit principles and design applications. Open channel applications include discussion of stable channel design and pavement drainage. Closed conduit applications include culvert and storm drain design. Examples are provided to help illustrate important concepts. An overview of energy dissipators is provided and the document concludes with a brief discussion of construction, maintenance and economic issues.

As the title suggests, Hydraulic Design Series No. 4 provides only an introduction to the design of highway drainage facilities and should be particularly useful for designers and engineers without extensive drainage training or experience. More detailed information on each topic discussed is provided by other Hydraulic Design Series and Hydraulic Engineering Circulars.

This publication is an update of the third edition. Revisions were necessary to reflect new information given in the third edition of HEC-14 (Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels,) the third edition of HEC-15 (Design of Roadside Channels with Flexible Linings), and the third edition of HEC-22 (Urban Drainage Design Manual).

Planning and Design of Hydroelectric Power Plant Structures

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EM 1110-2-3001
30 April 1995

This manual presents a discussion of the general, architectural and structural considerations applicable to the design of hydroelectric power plant structures. It is intended for the guidance of those elements within the Corps of Engineers responsible for the planning and design of such structures. It should also be used in establishing minimum criteria for the addition of hydropower facilities at existing Corps of Engineers projects, whether by Corps of Engineers or a non-Federal developer.

Response Spectra and Seismic Analysis for Concrete Hydraulic Structures

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EM 1110-2-6050
30 June 1999

This manual describes the development and use of response spectra for the seismic analysis of concrete hydraulic structures. The manual provides guidance regarding how earthquake ground motions are characterized as design response spectra and how they are then used in the process of seismic structural analysis and design. The manual is intended to be an introduction to the seismic analysis of concrete hydraulic structures. More detailed seismic guidance on specific types of hydraulic structures will be covered in engineer manuals and technical letters on those structures.

Chapter 1 provides an overview of the seismic assessment process for hydraulic structures and the responsibilities of the project team involved in the process, and also briefly summarizes the methodologies that are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. In Chapter 2, methodology for seismic analysis of hydraulic structures is discussed, including general concepts, design criteria, structural modeling, and analysis and interpretation of results. Chapter 3 describes methodology for developing the earthquake ground motion inputs for the seismic analysis of hydraulic structures. Emphasis is on developing response spectra of ground motions, but less detailed guidance is also provided for developing acceleration time-histories.

Structural Design and Evaluation of Outlet Works

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EM 1110-2-2400
2 June 2003

This manual provides guidance for the planning and structural design and analysis of intake structures and other outlet works features used on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers projects for the purpose of flood control, water supply, water quality and temperature control, recreation, or hydropower.

This manual presents guidance for the planning and design of outlet works structures, with special emphasis on intake towers. Other outlet works structures covered include tunnels, cut-and-cover conduits, access bridges, gate structures, and approach and discharge channel structures. Appurtenant features covered include trashracks, gates, valves, and mechanical and electrical operating equipment. Chapter 2 presents general planning and design information; Chapters 3 and 4 provide structural and seismic design guidance; Chapter 5 describes trashracks, bulkheads, gates, valves, and operating equipment; and Chapter 6 covers access bridge design requirements and describes special detailing considerations. Appendices B through E cover the seismic design and evaluation of intake towers.

Waterstops and Other Preformed Joint Materials for Civil Works Structures

US Army Corps of Engineers
EM 1110-2-2102
30 September 1995

This manual provides guidance on effective and economical selection, evaluation, and use of waterstops, preformed compression seals, and other preformed joint materials in the construction of concrete structures. It provides information on types of waterstops and other preformed joint materials used in hydraulic and non-hydraulic concrete structures, including locks, dams, floodwalls, storage tanks, pavements, buildings, bridge decks, and other concrete structures.

Concrete is normally subject to changes in length, shape, or volume caused by changes in temperature, moisture content, reactions with atmospheric carbon dioxide, or by the application of loads. One method of controlling and minimizing the effect of these changes or movements is to provide joints at which the movement can be accommodated without loss of integrity of the structure. There are many other reasons for providing joints in concrete structures such as at doors, windows, cladding, mechanical breaks, or to simplify construction. These joints must usually be sealed to prevent passage of excessive amounts of gases, liquids, or other unwanted substances into and or through the joint openings. Some preformed joint materials not only prevent the passage of undesirable substances but also prevent the entry of hardened particles into the joint that may eventually cause the concrete to crack or chip along the edge of the joint.

Dredging and Dredging Equipment

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Dredge in Norfolk Harbour, 2009.  We have a great deal of information on dredges used on the Great Lakes around the turn of the last century on a companion site; click here to see that.

Addressing Nearshore Placement near Lake Worth Inlet, Florida

Andrew Condon and Kelly Legault
U.S. Army District, Jacksonville
ERDC/CHL TR-19-1
January 2019

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nearshore hydrodynamics around Lake Worth Inlet, Florida, by utilizing the U.S. Army Research and Development Center Coastal Modelling System to address the feasibility of nearshore placement of dredged materials south of the inlet. The study area includes Palm Beach Harbor, Lake Worth Inlet, and the adjacent shorelines north and south of the inlet.

The effectiveness of the nearshore placement in mitigating beach impacts was examined in terms of wave energy reaching a point landward of the placement area. Different alternatives were examined. The closer to shore the material is placed (which leads to shallower depths), the greater the wave energy reduction. Thin placement in deeper water along the nearshore placement area resulted in little change in wave energy reaching the shore. Material should be placed as close to shore as practicable to result in less wave energy reaching the beach.

The Sediment Mobility Tool indicates the material will migrate onshore and remain within the nearshore system even when transported down- drift to the south. Nearshore placement of dredged material south of Florida Department of Environmental Protection Range Monument R-77 offers tangible benefits to the shoreline in the lee of the placement.

Applications Guide for Statistical Analyses in Dredged Sediment Evaluations

Joan U. Clarke, Dennis L. Brandon
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Miscellaneous Paper D-96-2
June 1996

Dredged sediment evaluations often require statistical analysis of chemical or biological test results. However, the resulting data are frequently problematic for standard statistical procedures because of improper experimental design, insufficient replication, failure to meet statistical test assumptions, outliers, and missing or below detection limit observations. Such nonideal data can seriously affect the error rates of statistical tests. This in turn increases the likelihood of drawing false inferences concerning the potential of a dredged sediment for adverse biological effects.

Simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of nonideal data on the performance of statistical tests recommended for dredged sediment evaluations.
Statistical test error rates were assessed using data that violated the normality and equality of variances assumptions, as well as data that included outliers or nondetects.

This report includes a brief introduction to statistical aspects of sediment sampling, some basic experimental designs and problems that can arise, errors in statistical testing and the importance of power, testing the normality and equality of variances assumptions and implications of violations, the effect of outliers, methods for analyzing less-than detection limit data and interpreting statistical test results. Program statements are provided for recommended statistical testing procedures using some popular statistical software packages. This report is intended as a companion to the statistics appendix of the Inland Testing Manual.

Dredging: An Annotated Bibliography on Operations, Equipment and Processes

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Technical Report HL-82-7
March 1982

This report is a fully annotated bibliography of references on dredging
operations, equipment, and processes. Dredged material disposal and environmental aspects of dredging are not included. Bibliographic listings with annotations are arranged alphabetically by author, with separate section for anonymously authored articles. Keyword index at end lists references by title and reference number.

Dredging and Dredged Material Management

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers EM 1110-2-5025
31 July 2015

This Engineer Manual (EM) presents a comprehensive summary of the dredging equipment and dredged material placement techniques used by the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers (USACE), and it describes the management and design processes associated with new work and maintenance dredging related to navigation projects. Guidance is provided on the following dredging topics:

  1. Evaluation and selection of dredging equipment for various materials to be dredged.
  2. Planning, designing, constructing, operating, and managing environmentally acceptable open-water and confined dredged material placement areas for both short- and long-term placement (disposal) needs.
  3. Planning, designing, developing, and managing dredged material for beneficial uses while incorporating ecological concepts and engineering designs with environmental, economical, and social feasibility.

Note: In this document, the terms “placement” and “disposal” are used synonymously to describe dredged material deposition after its removal from the dredging prism.

Dredging Equipment

NAVFAC DM 38.2
July 1981

This manual contains the following: information on procurement of dredging; types of equipment available, their characteristics and capacities; basic economics of dredging operations; and preparation of plans and specifications for the procurement of dredging for harbours, anchorages, turning basins and ship channels. A catalogue (description and characteristics) of dredges currently in the Navy inventory is included for guidance in the potential procurement of dredging by assignment of Navy equipment.