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Mooring Systems: Design, Construction and Maintenance

Design: Moorings

UFC 4-159-03
3 October 2005

SUPERSEDING (all of these are available as well):

This handbook is intended for use by facility and ship designers and contains policy and procedures for the design of moorings for Department of Defence (DOD) vessels.

For the purposes of this handbook, a mooring is defined as a compliant structure that restrains a vessel against the action of wind, wave, and current forces.

For the purposes of this handbook, the emphasis is on moorings composed of tension members (chain, line, wire rope, etc.) and compression members (fenders, camels, etc.) used to secure vessels (surface ships, submarines, floating dry-docks, yard craft, etc.). The term mooring in this handbook includes anchoring of ships.

The primary emphasis of this handbook is the mooring of floating structures or ‘vessels,’ such as ships, yard craft, submarines, and floating dry-docks in harbours. This handbook does not address systems where the environmental forcing on the mooring members themselves is important, as may be the case for towed underwater bodies, ship-to-ship at-sea mooring, and towing of one vessel by another.

Mooring Hardware Inspection

UFC 4-150-08
28 October 2020

This UFC provides guidance for the planning, inspection, assessment, and reporting of mooring hardware conditions. It should be used as a tool for helping personnel tasked with maintaining the readiness of shore side facilities for use by the fleet and in support of military marine operations. The Mooring Hardware Report has the following objectives:

  • Establish adequacy of mooring facilities.
  • Enable facility users to develop efficient berthing plans.
  • Establish baseline data on existing mooring hardware and berthing capacity.
  • Provide facility users with information sufficient to determine level of effort to maintain or upgrade existing capacity.


Mooring Maintenance Manual

August 1987

This manual contains background information and procedural guidelines concerning the maintenance of Navy fleet moorings and spare fleet mooring material. This includes mooring installation and recovery procedures, the refurbishing and overhaul of mooring material ashore and afloat, inspection criteria and guidelines, inventory storage criteria, and the utilization of cathodic protection systems to effectively reduce the corrosion rate of mooring material.

The materials and procedures detailed herein have been prepared to assist the user in establishing and sustaining an effective fleet mooring maintenance program. Although it is not mandatory that field units follow the recommended procedures, they have been developed from the best technical sources available to the Naval Facilities Engineering Command and represent many years of practical and successful field experience.

Inspection of Mooring Hardware

United Facilities Criteria UFC 4-150-8
1 April 2001

This handbook is a guide for engineers, planners and facility personnel in scheduling, inspection, maintenance, and repairs of mooring hardware at waterfront facilities and related facilities. Initial chapters provide a summary of responsibilities and policies, field inspection guidelines, and mooring hardware types. Inspection levels, methods, planning, and techniques and check-lists are covered for above water inspection. General load capacity testing procedures are described and illustrated for general mooring hardware.

This UFC provides guidance for the specialized inspection and testing of mooring hardware at waterfront facilities and related facilities. Inspection levels, methods, and testing procedures are presented for the mooring hardware. The testing procedures presented herein allot for a more detailed load capacity assessment of specified mooring hardware. The resulting findings of inspections of mooring hardware and fendering are to guide facility personnel in the selection of appropriate analysis, repair and replacement techniques, maintenance, inspection of fieldwork for acceptability, and planning the follow-on inspection requirements.

The standards and methods presented herein are a guide to the planning, inspection, assessment, and reporting of mooring hardware conditions. The standards and methods outlined have been developed from the best technical sources in industry and the military services.

Pile Driven Plate Anchors for Fleet Moorings

NCEL 92-10
November 1992

Technology has been developed for designing and installing plate anchors using conventional pile driving techniques. Plate anchors resist loading in any direction and are suitable for most Fleet mooring applications. They are especially attractive for situations involving complex seafloors, bottom obstructions, shallow water, or short scope mooring applications. Large holding capacities can be expected from small, inexpensive anchor configurations, installed with readily available marine equipment. Installation can be achieved by any standard YD crane barge with four-point mooring capability, and a template to guide the pile follower system during driving.

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